The article analysed major river runoffs, glacier mass loss, precipitation and surface temperature changes in the Himalaya region. The paper’s quantitative analysis of historical precipitation matched the result run by the climate model CMIP 5. Decreasing precipitation and rising surface temperature as results of climate change have cost the Himalaya region glacier retreats and shrunk river runoffs. The living environment for 40 million local residents has become drier in dry areas and wetter in wet areas. Hot and cold extremes have been putting additional challenges to them. Future projections suggest more radical glacier retreats and increasing precipitation, which can be catastrophic to the local livelihoods. The paper also gave suggestions on future solutions to the intensifying water challenges from financial, political and social perspectives. Both international support and local effort are needed to overcome the current water challenges that the Himalaya region is facing. Possible solutions include financial supports to improve infrastructure, actions to ratify mitigation targets, green energy development and good community practices in water use.